Deezer – Music Enterprise Analysis

Deezer – Music Enterprise Analysis

As we’ve got seen, Spotify was not the pioneer of music streaming. Different companies, resembling RealNetworks/Rhapsody or MOG, had been round for a very long time when Spotify arrived. The French music streaming service Deezer additionally went on-line earlier than Spotify and briefly labored its approach as much as change into the second largest music streaming service on this planet, however was solely in a position to set up itself because the market chief in France. This a part of the weblog sequence recounts the historical past of Deezer and analyses its position within the worldwide music streaming market.

The Music Streaming Economic system – Half 4: Deezer

In September 2006, nevertheless, Deezer was nonetheless referred to as BlogMusik.internet and was based by college dropout Daniel Marhely[1] as an internet platform the place customers may add their music MP3s for streaming.[2] BlogMusik.internet quickly got here to the eye of the French music gathering society SACEM as a result of the platform was not paying royalties for its repertoire. In February 2007, BlogMusik.internet went offline underneath strain from SACEM and started licensing negotiations. On 22 August 2007, BlogMusik.internet was renamed and a press launch introduced that, following profitable negotiations with SACEM, the world’s first on-demand music web site with out DRM restrictions can be obtainable without spending a dime and legally through an Web browser.[3] Deezer wished to make a “revolutionary” contribution to battle in opposition to unlawful music consumption, in response to its announcement. Deezer boasted that it was already obtainable in 16 totally different languages and in lots of international locations, the place customers may entry a whole bunch of hundreds of tracks without spending a dime due to promoting and handle their content material through playlists. The press launch additionally introduced that Deezer was already in negotiations with the music majors to make clear the grasp rights to the recordings.

Nevertheless it wasn’t as straightforward as Deezer founders Daniel Marhely and Jonathan Benassaya had imagined. Though they managed to strike licensing offers with digital music distributor Imagine and a few French indie labels, the majors have been nonetheless reluctant to present their blessing to the brand new on-line music service. Negotiations with Common, Sony, Warner and EMI dragged on till a suitable consequence was reached two years later.[4] In the meantime, Deezer was at risk of failing financially. The corporate’s restricted repertoire of indie music and the majors’ monetary calls for have been placing a pressure on its funds. French investor Xavier Niel kick-started the challenge in June 2007 with EUR 250,000 in seed funding, however the cash was rapidly used up. In January 2008, the Rosenblum brothers’ Dot Corp Fund purchased a 24 per cent stake within the firm for EUR 4.8 million, guaranteeing Deezer’s survival in the meanwhile.[5]

Nonetheless, even this funding was solely simply sufficient to pay the advances to the music majors for catalogue use within the quantity of EUR 2.5 to three million, as reported by the French newspaper Le Figaro in 2010. As well as, Deezer needed to pay a further 1 to 1.5 eurocents to the main labels for every music observe performed.[6] Considering the settlement with SACEM to pay 8 per cent of annual turnover in royalties, there was hardly any cash left over to run the enterprise, as Deezer co-founder Jonathan Benassaya admitted in an interview with Le Musicodrome in October 2009. The Deezer CEO complained that round EUR 6 million a yr was going to the rights holders alone.[7] Deezer additionally wanted to boost new enterprise capital rapidly as promoting revenues weren’t as robust as anticipated, regardless of the creation of its personal promoting company. In October 2009, the CM-CIC personal capital funds of the main French financial institution Credit score Mutuel and AGF Personal Fairness supplied EUR 6.5 million. A month later, Deezer additionally needed to abandon its free music technique and from November 2009 supplied a month-to-month subscription of EUR 4.99 for PCs with Deezer HQ and EUR 9.99 for smartphones with Deezer Premium. However with solely 14,000 paying subscribers within the first three months, the swap to a freemium mannequin value Deezer CEO Benassaya his job.[8]

Deezer’s lifeline was a cope with French cell operator Orange, introduced by the brand new administration in June 2010.[9] Accordingly, Orange acquired an 11 per cent stake in Deezer and merged it with its music service WorMee, which was based in 2009.[10] Orange bundled Deezer into its cell tariffs, which meant that as an alternative of some thousand extra subscriptions per 30 days, greater than 100,000 subscribed. In the summertime of 2011, Deezer surpassed 1 million paying customers for the primary time.[11] Very like Spotify, which was in a position to acquire a foothold available in the market by working with Scandinavian cell operators, Deezer was in a position to obtain a turnaround with the assistance of Orange.

With Orange as a associate, Deezer, which was solely obtainable in France, Belgium and the UK in 2011, now may broaden internationally. In November 2011, the corporate introduced its intention to function in 130 international locations – however not within the US.[12] In Could 2012, Deezer signed a licensing cope with indie label rights administration company MERLIN,[13] which meant that indie catalogues from outdoors France might be included within the streaming service. This made Deezer a completely licensed international music streaming service that might compete with Spotify and the tech corporations’ choices.

Deezer’s monetary state of affairs improved additional in 2012 when the business and expertise conglomerate Entry Industries, which was additionally the bulk proprietor of the Warner Music Group, invested US $130 million in Deezer in October.[14] In 2012, Deezer was in a position to look again on a profitable yr through which it additionally managed to realize greater than 3 million paying customers for its streaming service.[15] And the success continued the next yr, when 5 million subscribers have been reported.[16] Using this wave of success, Deezer entered right into a strategic alliance with German personal broadcaster ProSiebenSat1 in June 2014, through which Deezer acquired the streaming service Ampya, which had been based solely a yr earlier, and ProSiebenSat1 acquired a stake in Deezer. Deezer additionally teamed up with cell phone large Vodafone in an in the end unsuccessful bid to overhaul market chief Spotify in Germany.[17]

After Germany, Deezer’s focus turned to the US market, the place the streaming service was launched in September 2014.[18] To strengthen its market place in North America, Deezer purchased music streaming supplier Muve from US cell phone firm Cricket, a part of the AT&T group, in early 2015. Muve customers’ knowledge was taken over and, after a free trial interval, the useres may determine whether or not to change into Deezer prospects. With its growth into the US, Deezer turned the second largest music streaming service on this planet, behind Spotify, and introduced its IPO on Euronext in Paris in October 2015. It got here as an enormous shock when officers cancelled the IPO three days earlier than its scheduled launch on 28 October, which might have raised an estimated EUR 300-400 million for the corporate.[19] The financial state of affairs and the poor inventory market setting have been cited as unconvincing causes for the withdrawal. Tim Ingham from Music Enterprise Worldwide, however, noticed different causes for the failed IPO:[20] Within the first quarter of 2015, Deezer needed to report a lower of the variety of subscribers by greater than 500,000 to six.34 million customers, greater than half of whom weren’t paying customers however had solely signed up without spending a dime trials. Ingham calculated that the variety of paying subscribers in 2015 was 3.79 million, 90,000 fewer than within the earlier yr. It was additionally important that Deezer had solely been making losses since 2012, and was once more within the crimson within the first half of 2015 with round €9 million. This was on account of extraordinarily excessive advance funds to rights holders for the usage of their music catalogues. Within the first half of 2014, these prices accounted for 86 p.c of whole revenues, and one yr later they nonetheless accounted for 76 p.c. Most of Deezer’s income from streaming music needed to be paid on to the labels. To make issues worse, Orange France stopped bundling Deezer with its cell companies in 2014, which most likely additionally explains the decline within the variety of paying subscribers. With Orange’s contract on account of be renewed in 2016, there was additionally a threat that the cell operator would pull out of its alliance with Deezer altogether, which might have been disastrous for Deezer. In these circumstances, Ingham concluded, the IPO was just too dangerous.[21]

As an alternative of the IPO, house owners Entry Industries and Orange needed to help Deezer with a EUR 100 million money injection in January 2016, with Entry offering the majority of the funds.[22] In consequence, Entry held greater than 50 per cent of Deezer in September of the identical yr and Orange’s share shrank to 10 per cent.[23] This made Entry Industries not solely the bulk proprietor of Warner Music Group, but in addition the world’s second largest music streaming supplier. In 2018, a consortium led by Entry Industries and Orange, with companions from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Emirate of Dubai, invested an extra EUR 160 million, rising Deezer’s worth to EUR 1 billion.[24] Nonetheless, this laid the muse for a second try at an IPO, which lastly passed off on 5 July 2022 on Euronext Paris with the assistance of the Particular Acquisition Firm (SPAC) I2PO. Surrounded by his fellow board members, Deezer CEO Jeronimo Folgueira rang the opening bell at the beginning of the buying and selling day, as seen within the press images.[25] The IPO additionally revealed Deezer’s possession construction. Unsurprisingly, the most important shareholders have been Entry Industrie with 38.1 per cent and Orange with 8.1 per cent, adopted by funding funds from Saudi Arabia and Dubai with simply over 5 per cent every. A shock, nevertheless, was that Warner Music Group, by means of its subsidiary WEA Worldwide, additionally held 3.2 per cent of Deezer shares.[26] This meant that Deezer, like Spotify, was additionally owned by a music main, albeit to a lesser extent.

It’s subsequently no shock that the previous long-term CEO of Warner Music Worldwide, Stu Bergen, was elected Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Deezer on the finish of February 2023. This most likely additionally has to do with the truth that though Deezer has been in a position to enhance its income since its IPO, it’s nonetheless working at a loss and needed to report a unfavorable consequence from working actions (EBIT) of EUR 166.7 million for 2022.[27] Nonetheless, the variety of subscribers fell by 2.1 per cent to 9.3 million in March 2023, which is especially on account of an erosion of person numbers outdoors of France. And that is exactly the issue for Deezer, which is the undisputed market chief in its residence market of France and generates 61 per cent of its whole income there, however lags far behind its opponents outdoors the nation.[28] This pattern continued in 2023, when the annual report for the primary half of the yr recorded an extra decline in subscribers outdoors France to 2 million, whereas the variety of paying customers in France elevated from 3.3 million to three.6 million. This lowered the half-year loss to EUR 42.5 million, however that is nonetheless a excessive determine, primarily because of the excessive value of income, which amounted to 88 per cent of whole revenues.[29] We are going to see that this can be a structural downside for the music streaming companies, which need to pay excessive upfront charges to the labels to realize entry to the music catalogues within the first place, which shall be analysed intimately in a later a part of this sequence.


[1] Wikipedia, “Daniel Marhely”, model of March 3, 2021, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[2] TechCrunch, “Unique: BlogMusik To Go Legit; Launches Free & Authorized Music On Demand”, August 22, 2007, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[3] press launch, “ libere enfin toutes les musiques”, August 22, 2007, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[4] INA World, “Deezer: Profitability Down the Line?”, August 18, 2011, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[5] The Wall Road Journal, “Deezer’s Growth Plans Get a Enhance”, October 8, 2012, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[6] Le Figaro, “Musique: les websites de streaming menaces”, March 4, 2010, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[7] INA World, “Deezer: Profitability Down the Line?”, August 18, 2011, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Billboard, “Orange Companions With Streaming Service Deezer”, July 23, 2010, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[10] L’Categorical, “Musique: Deezer va fusionner avec WorMee d’Orange”, July 21, 2010, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[11] ZDNet, “Axel Dauchez, Deezer : ‘Le cap du million d’abonnés payants sera passé cet été’”, March 9, 2011, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[12] Billboard, “Deezer To Launch In 130 Worldwide Markets, U.S. No Time Quickly”, November 3, 2011, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[13] Music Enterprise Worldwide, “Merlin licenses Deezer throughout the globe”, Could 10, 2012, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[14] Billboard, “Deezer Raises $130 Million: Report”, October 6, 2012, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[15] Billboard, “Deezer Reaches 3 Million Subscribers, Launches Free Service, Provides Options”, December 19, 2012, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[17] Wirtschaftswoche, “Ampya und Deezer schmieden Allianz gegen Spotify”, June 10, 2014, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[18] Billboard, “Deezer Lastly Coming to America on Sept. 15”, September 10, 2014, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[19] New York Occasions, “Deezer, French Music Streaming Service, Postpones I.P.O.”, October 27, 2015, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[20] Music Enterprise Worldwide, “Deezer scraps IPO that might have raised $400m – right here’s 5 the explanation why”, October 28, 2015, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Music Enterprise Worldwide, “Deezer absorbs €100m funding from Orange and Entry Industries”, January 20, 2016, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[23] Music Enterprise Worldwide, “Len Blavatnik’s Entry Industries takes ‘unique management’ of Deezer”, September 7, 2016, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[24] Music Enterprise Worldwide, “Deezer raises $185m as new funding values firm at over $1bn”, August 2, 2018, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[25] Music Enterprise Worldwide, “Deezer goes public: Spotify rival makes inventory market debut on Euronext Paris”, July 5, 2022, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Music Enterprise Worldwide, “Deezer generated over $470m in 2022, with a $175m working loss, and simply named Stu Bergen as a Director on its Board”, February 28, 2023, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[28] Music Enterprise Worldwide, “Deezer’s revenues grew 6.2% YoY in Q1, however its whole subscribers fell 2.1% to 9.3m”, April 24, 2023, accessed: 2024-07-07.

[29] Ibid.

Kenny Beats Named Splice’s First Artist in House

Kenny Beats Named Splice’s First Artist in House

” Hell no”, Kenny Beats says with a grin. He has just been questioned about his intentions to become a teacher while sitting behind a drum kit in his Los Angeles home workshop.

” I have a lot to learn, is how I’ve always felt, and I still feel that way”, continues the producer behind tasks by Rico Nasty, Vince Staples, and more. ” But then some of the things I say have weight because they’ve seen me truly go and do it.” But I guess it makes sense”.

Over the past year and a half, Kenny has developed into a sort of hip-hop manufacturing doctor, spending much of his interruption in the pandemic bringing the curtain back on how he creates his tracks for a large crowd of supporters on his social press. The song creation support Splice has appointed him as the platform’s second always artist in residence, bringing him on for a six-part, 90-minute academic series that covers a range of topics from simple beat-making tips and tricks to using samples and recording vocals. Beginning October 13th, the six bouts will begin regular.

While celebrity suppliers are usually protective of their processes and techniques, Kenny is somewhat translucent. He generally shares insights from his job, and he’ll often move his viewers through his production advice on life Instagram and Twitch live streams. It’s a really conscious choice to promote so much of his generation style, one that comes from his own personal obligation to share the money that comes with his system.

What am I giving up different than a great music as a white developer from Connecticut who specializes in Black music and has been given a chance to work with so many people I always thought I would be able to work with? he says. ” In the past, all I always considered was making music, but now I need to use my platform for something greater. I need to assist in helping someone who might not be receiving it.

Splice itself is one of the most well-known manufacturing companies for artists of all kinds, in part due to the extensive collection of royalty-free samples at the disposal of its clients. As Splice expands, it wants to further establish itself as a broader foundation for empowering artists to create. The most recent addition to Splice Skills, the platform’s video tutorial area, which covers many of the nuances of music production, from layering vocals to learning tracks, is Kenny Beats ‘ appointment as performer in residence. Instead of just outputting out standard, one-size-fits-all lessons, Splice CEO Steve Martocci hopes Kenny will help the platform offer content that highlights an artist’s individual individual genius and uniqueness.

According to Splice CEO Steve Martocci,” we always say that people give up on themselves.” It takes a lot of work for me to pick up a guitar the first time because I want it to sound good. Because it’s so difficult, the majority of people give up before they can play a chord. Because it has opened new ways to empower artists, for us to cultivate the raw creative spirit, software has changed that. Education also aids in that. And Kenny, even when he’s not trying, is a teacher. People will listen to him because he is so knowledgeable and concerned about things that expressing himself alone will do.

According to Martocci, Kenny was by far the most popular instructor in the Splice community for the new program. The producer plans to use his Splice videos to teach emerging artists other technical skills, as well as continuing to promote his own technical abilities through his curriculum.

” There’s plenty of simple how- to production videos on YouTube, but I can talk about what goes on in your career that is n’t just songwriting”, Kenny says. You never hear anyone discuss what it was like during the initial session. What should you do if you blunder, receive no payment, or are ultimately denied credit for your work? I talk about my experiences and what has or has n’t worked for me because of all the tangible experiences I’ve had that I could n’t watch a tutorial on. I’m trying to make an online video that can fill in the gaps left by me when I first started.

Splice and Kenny have a long-standing relationship that began before the artist’s visit. Kenny frequently uses Splice, and the company collaborated with him on the third season of his well-known YouTube series, The Cave. While Kenny himself is a more traditionally trained producer, having previously attended the Berkelee College of Music, he is enthusiastic about the ongoing democratization of music that has come with software like Splice. He also welcomes the idea of introducing a class of musicians who have n’t had those opportunities.

” Making music is the most accessible it’s ever been in history. So many people want to make music now”, Kenny says. ” There may not be 10 bassists, drummers, or guitarists at a school — but I promise you there are 10 kids who can open Traktor or know how Ableton works. It does n’t matter anymore if you went to school for music, if you play an instrument, or even if you’re necessarily musically inclined. Some people detest the fact that the music industry is experiencing such intense instant gratification. The barrier now is’ Do you have ideas? Do you have any songs that you feel you must release?

As the program launches, Kenny wants the series to offer a well-rounded course that will put audiences on a similar path to the one he was able to follow, but with more knowledge than he had at the beginning.

” If there’s anything to take away from this whole series, my career completely changed when I started to cover my blindspots”, he says. There’s always a new technical skill to learn, and there’s always a new conversation to be had, no matter who you are and what you excel at. Slowly, one by one, I’ve gotten better those things, and I became a Swiss army knife for the artists I work with. If you need me to record, vocal produce, set up microphones, or just make a beat, I’m comfortable in all those chairs, which is invaluable. It’s much more powerful to impart that to younger people who want to do this than to release another couple of big records.

Defending Movie star Rights or Limiting Free Speech? – The Karan Johar v. India Pleasure Advisory Case

Defending Movie star Rights or Limiting Free Speech? – The Karan Johar v. India Pleasure Advisory Case


Within the case of Karan Johar v. India Pleasure Advisory Pvt. Ltd.,[i] the Bombay Excessive Court docket delivered a big ruling, issuing a restraining order in opposition to the discharge of the movie “Shaadi Ke Director Karan Aur Johar” / “Shadi Ke Director Karan Johar”. The Court docket halted the movie’s launch and in addition prohibited using any promotional materials related to it.

The case was introduced earlier than the Court docket by the famend producer and director, Karan Johar, who argued that the movie’s title implied an affiliation with him, thereby exploiting his status and goodwill with out authorization. The case raises necessary issues in regards to the steadiness between defending persona rights and upholding inventive expression and in addition raises a number of different questions. It’s subsequently necessary to debate and analyse the precedent so as to perceive it’s future implications.


The movie “Shaadi Ke Director Karan Aur Johar” was scheduled for launch on 14th June 2024. The outline of the movie seen on the location BookMyShow[ii] reveals that the movie is about “Karan and Johar, two eccentric marriage ceremony planners, as they navigate the chaos and comedy of orchestrating essentially the most extravagant weddings.” Plainly the movie centres round two completely different individuals by the names of Karan, and Johar, and subsequently, it appears that evidently no direct reference is being made in direction of the plaintiff.

Nonetheless, the Plaintiff alleged that that the Defendants are utilizing the identify “Karan Johar” within the title and within the promotion, endorsement and publicity of the movie, with out permission, thereby violating his persona rights, publicity rights, and privateness rights, in search of to acquire unjust earnings / illegal acquire and trigger wrongful loss to the Plaintiff.


The Plaintiff argued that Karan Johar had gained superstar standing via the blockbuster movies which he had directed that performed an awesome position in reworking the Bollywood movie trade and launched the careers of a number of profitable actors. It was argued that “an entity who has obtained superstar standing has persona rights, proper of publicity and proper to privateness and until his consent is taken for utilizing his private attributes equivalent to his identify and career there’s violation of such rights.”

The Plaintiff contended that he was distressed by the unauthorized use of his identify within the movie titled “Shadi Ke Director Karan Aur Johar” or “Shadi Ke Director Karan Johar“. The Plaintiff argued that the movie’s title and content material made direct references to him, which constituted a misuse of his identify and identification. The Plaintiff additional asserted that the Defendants had been utilizing his identify with malicious intent to mislead the general public into believing that he was related to the movie.

This was significantly evident within the movie’s trailers, which steered that the characters named “Karan” and “Johar” collaborated to change into Bollywood administrators and had been depicted making a Bollywood movie. The Plaintiff claimed that this state of affairs clearly exploited his persona. It was additionally contended that by consciously utilizing such model identify of the Plaintiff, the Defendants had been in search of to acquire unjust earnings / illegal acquire and trigger wrongful loss to the Plaintiff. Reliance was positioned upon varied selections of the Delhi Excessive Court docket the place persona rights have equally been protected.

The Defendants alternatively failed to seem within the proceedings, although they had been served with papers and intimated about mentioning of the matter. They’d not bothered to contest the declare of the Plaintiff.


The Court docket famous {that a} robust prima facie case was made out to guard persona rights of the Plaintiff, as he loved a star standing from the a number of blockbuster movies which he had directed.

The Court docket held that it was of the prima facie view that the movie “Shadi Ke Director Karan Aur Johar” / “Shadi Ke Director Karan Johar” made an unauthorized and illegal use of Plaintiff’s identify.

It was additionally famous by the Court docket that using the time period “Director” alongside “Karan Johar” clearly indicated that the Defendants had been exploiting the Plaintiff’s persona. The Defendants had been attempting to create confusion among the many common public, main them to imagine that the movie was related to the Plaintiff. Most of the people was more likely to determine and affiliate Karan Johar with the movie when it acquired conscious of the movie’s title.

The Court docket held that because the Plaintiff sought safety of his persona rights and privateness, the Defendants, by making unauthorized use of the Plaintiff’s identify and private attributes, together with his identify and career, had, in a prima facie view, violated the Plaintiff’s persona rights, proper to publicity, and proper to privateness.

Subsequently, an ad-interim injunction was granted and the Defendants had been restrained from utilizing Karan Johar’s identify or another attributes, and the movie was restrained from being launched, till the Defendants eliminated the identify of Karan Johar and his attributes, altogether, from the movie.


Because the views are prima facie, which means on first impression, and because the Defendants weren’t current for opposing the order, a possibility was missed for the Court docket right here to put the muse of a priceless precedent the place freedom of inventive expression was given significance. That is particularly required in right this moment’s observe, the place individuals are typically sending notices or submitting lawsuits for something and all the things, with the intention of grabbing a number of further bucks (not speaking about this case significantly).

It’s doubtless there will likely be a revision within the choice of Court docket. This appears evident from the clarification that “Defendants are at liberty to hunt variations, modifications and / or trip of the ad-interim aid”.

Nonetheless, in gentle of this order, there are a number of attention-grabbing factors and questions raised that I really feel are obligatory to debate.

Privateness Rights

It’s attention-grabbing to notice, the Court docket held that proper to privateness of the Plaintiff was violated. In what method, and the way? This was not answered. In reality, very much less reasoning has been given for coming to this choice, understandably because of the urgency of the order.

The Supreme Court docket in R. Rajagopal v. State Of T.N.,[iii] had acknowledged the suitable to privateness whereby it was noticed that: “A citizen has a proper to safeguard the privateness of his personal, his household, marriage, procreation, motherhood, child-bearing and training amongst different issues. None can publish something in regards to the above issues with out his consent whether or not truthful or in any other case and whether or not laudatory or vital. If he does so, he can be violating the suitable to privateness of the particular person involved and can be liable in an motion for damages.

Nonetheless, it was additionally noticed that “any publication in regards to the aforesaid [privacy] features turns into unobjectionable if such publication is predicated upon public information”.[iv]

For my part, a person’s identify can’t be thought-about as private knowledge, particularly when it’s publicly obtainable on social media platforms, thereby turning into part of public information.

In any other case, each article or work that makes use of or references the identify of Karan Johar must be taken down, as a result of violation of his “proper to privateness. This actually can’t be the intention of the Court docket right here. Subsequently, the order that proper to privateness was violated merely by means of Plaintiff’s identify, appears a bit excessive.

Publicity Rights

The one violation obvious right here might be that of persona rights or publicity rights, given the superstar standing of the Plaintiff.

Nonetheless, even in that case, a sound defence to violation of publicity rights is offered for the Defendants, taking help of a pertinent commentary made in Digital Collectibles v. Galactus Funware Expertise.[v] It was noticed by the Court docket there that the “… use of superstar names, photographs for the needs of lampooning, satire, parodies, artwork, scholarship, music, teachers, information and different comparable makes use of can be permissible as sides of the suitable of freedom of speech and expression beneath Article 19(1)(a) of the Structure of India and wouldn’t fall foul to the tort of infringement of the suitable of publicity.”[vi]

Subsequently, it may be argued that using the identify of a star merely within the title for inventive functions must be permissible as a side of the suitable of freedom of speech and expression beneath Article 19(1)(a) of the Structure of India. The Court docket appears to have rushed to its conclusion with out contemplating this important and elementary side.

Rogers v. Grimaldi

One other pertinent case right here that might have been referred to, was that of Rogers v. Grimaldi[vii] determined in the US. The info had been that Ginger Rogers, a famend entertainer well-known for her performances with Fred Astaire, sued Alberto Grimaldi and others over the movie “Ginger and Fred”.

The Movie “Ginger and Fred”, portrayed two retired dancers who earned the nickname “Ginger and Fred” from imitating Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire. The movie’s plot centred on their reunion for an Italian tv particular.

Rogers argued that the movie’s title misled the general public into believing she was related to or endorsing the movie, thereby violating (1) her proper to publicity; (2) her proper to privateness; and (3) the Lanham Act.

Notice: Lanham Act gives for a system of trademark registration in the US and protects the proprietor of a mark in opposition to using comparable marks, if such use is more likely to end in shopper confusion, or if the dilution of a well-known mark is more likely to happen.[viii]

The problem subsequently was if using a star’s identify within the title of a creative work violated her the suitable to privateness, persona or publicity rights, or if it violated the Lanham Act?

The Court docket discovered that Rogers’ claims failed as a matter of regulation as a result of the movie “Ginger and Fred” was protected as a creative expression beneath the First Modification. The court docket decided that the movie will not be a business product or commercial, and thus doesn’t fall beneath commerce or promoting legal guidelines. It’s a satire about trendy tv that includes a reunion of two performers who as soon as imitated Rogers and Astaire, which is central to the movie’s inventive content material. Subsequently, each the movie and its title had been entitled to full First Modification safety.

It was very rightly noticed by the Court docket right here: “Equally protected is the title of the Movie, an integral a part of the work’s inventive expression, which is a reference to its central characters.

This case, and its observations, are strikingly just like the case at hand, as a result of just like the names “Ginger” and “Fred”, the identify “Karan” and “Johar” had been getting used to explain two separate characters who’re central to the movie’s inventive content material. The title being an integral a part of the work’s inventive expression, the utilization ought to have been permissible and guarded by freedom of expression, thereby being an exception to the violation of privateness rights, persona rights, or any logos.

Ultimate Ideas

Maintaining in thoughts varied Indian precedents and exceptions carved out, and in addition maintaining in thoughts the case of Rogers v. Grimaldi, it appears that evidently, a special choice might have been given right here by this Court docket, contemplating that the official title of the movie: “Shadi Ke Director Karan Aur Johar”, used the identify “Karan Johar” for 2 completely different individuals, which had been artistically related to the story of the movie. The info right here appear to strongly incline in direction of being protected as inventive expression, being an exception to violation of privateness, persona or publicity rights.

Nonetheless, in my view, it’s true that using the phrase “Director”, as identified by the Court docket, may give a deceptive message to the customers, that the movie was sponsored or associated to Karan Johar, as he’s thought-about well-known for his position as a director in lots of well-known Bollywood movies. Taking down this phrase can be a viable choice to forestall all direct references. However in any case, even this side must be lined beneath freedom of speech and expression.

The take a look at of Rogers will not be relevant in India, however it’s positively one thing to bear in mind. Just like that case, persona rights or publicity rights mustn’t have taken priority over real inventive expression.

In any case, although a possibility was current for each the events to additional broaden the jurisprudence over this eternal battle between inventive expression and privateness/persona rights, the failure by the Defendants to seem in Court docket enormously restricted any doable conclusion. It might probably solely be hoped that the ultimate judgement may consider all these factors, and the Court docket will give its reasoned choice.

Finish notes:

[i] Karan Johar v. India Pleasure Advisory Pvt. Ltd., Interim Software (L) No.17865 Of 2024 in Com IPR Go well with (L) No.17863 Of 2024.

[ii] pictures/shaadi-ke-director-karan-aur-johar/ET00401267.

[iii] R. Rajagopal vs State Of T.N., 1995 AIR 264, 1994 SCC (6) 632.

[iv] Para 26, Ibid.

[v] Digital Collectibles v. Galactus Funware Expertise, CS(COMM) 108/2023

[vi] Para 57, Ibid.

[vii] Rogers v. Grimaldi, 875 F.2nd 994 (1989)


Picture generated on Dall-E

The Worldwide Music Streaming Growth – Music Enterprise Analysis

The Worldwide Music Streaming Growth – Music Enterprise Analysis

Twenty years in the past, the Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade’s (IFPI) On-line Music Report first talked about music streaming as a doubtlessly related income for the phonographic trade, which on the time was nonetheless dominated by recorded music gross sales. Nevertheless, it was not till 2010 that music streaming grew to become commercially related, and within the years that adopted it grew to become virtually the one income for the file trade. This weblog collection traces the historical past of the music streaming financial system and its main gamers from the Nineties to the current day. Within the first half, the income growth of music streaming within the worldwide phonographic market is summarised in figures and analysed in additional element.

The Music Streaming Financial system – Half 1: The Worldwide Music Streaming Growth

In January 2004, the Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI) took a better have a look at the digital music enterprise for the primary time with its On-line Music Report.[1]  That is no coincidence. In 2003, Apple opened its iTunes music obtain retailer to the general public, first to its Mac prospects and later to PC customers. The IPFI report subsequently focuses on the obtain enterprise. Nevertheless, it additionally mentions music streaming providers corresponding to Napster 2.0, Rhapsody, MusicMatch and OD2, which will probably be mentioned in additional element later. Nevertheless, the technical circumstances for mass music streaming didn’t exist in 2003. Broadband web was nonetheless in its infancy, 3G cell phone expertise had simply been launched and the smartphone wouldn’t be launched for one more 5 years.

It’s subsequently not shocking that the gross sales figures for music streaming weren’t even included within the IFPI’s Recording Trade World Gross sales 2003 Report, which was revealed in April 2004.[2] In a brief paragraph entitled ‘Digital Music Gross sales’, it was simply talked about that gross sales of US $30 million have been achieved with music downloads within the USA in 2003, which have been already exceeded in March 2004 with US $50 million.[3] Nevertheless, music streaming was not talked about as soon as in your entire report.

Nevertheless, the US was the primary marketplace for which digital music revenues have been out there. The 2004 annual report of the Recording Trade Affiliation of America (RIAA) reported for the primary time the distributions of the newly shaped SoundExchange gathering society, which collects royalties from non-interactive streaming providers corresponding to Pandora in addition to webcasters and satellite tv for pc radios, within the modest quantity of US $6.9 million. For 2005, the RIAA’s annual report additionally included figures for on-demand music streaming, which totalled $149.2 million, or about 14 % of all digital revenues and 1.2 % of complete revenues. The report additionally included SoundExchange distributions, which rose to $20.4 million.[4]

Within the mid-2000s, subsequently, the music streaming market was nonetheless in its infancy, removed from with the ability to compensate for the downright collapse of gross sales within the US file trade after 2005. The principle cause for this recession within the US music market was the large stoop in CD gross sales yr after yr, as proven in determine 1.

Determine 1: Recorded music gross sales within the US, 2004-2023

Supply: Recording Trade Affiliation of America (RIAA), U.S. Music Income Database, n.d., accessed: 2024-06-11.

Between 2004 and 2008, the yr wherein Spotify was launched in Europe, phonographic gross sales within the USA fell by greater than half from US $11.4 billion to US $5.5 billion, as a result of as a substitute of 767 million CDs in 2004, solely 385 million – half as many – have been bought 4 years later. An analogous image emerged within the different main music markets: France (- 43 per cent), the UK (- 25 per cent) and Japan (- 18 per cent). Germany was the one nation to flee comparatively unscathed with a drop in CD gross sales of 8 per cent between 2004 and 2008.[5]

In distinction, digital revenues within the US grew quickly between 2004 and 2008, from $191 million to round $2 billion, pushed primarily by the booming obtain enterprise. Revenues from on-demand music streaming, however, stagnated at $200 million within the US between 2006 and 2010, accounting for simply 3 % of complete recorded music revenues in 2010. Solely SoundExchange’s distributions from licensing non-interactive streaming providers and satellite tv for pc radios, totalling $100 million in 2008, improved the steadiness sheet barely. Nonetheless, revenues from the obtain enterprise have been 5 occasions greater than these from music streaming. This modified dramatically in 2010, when US streaming revenues grew by 28 per cent. This was adopted by years of excessive double-digit progress in on-demand music streaming revenues, plus funds from SoundExchange.

Nevertheless, the rising use of streaming providers cannibalised music obtain gross sales, which peaked in 2012 after which fell sharply. By 2023, album and single downloads collectively generated much less income than CD gross sales within the US.[6]

Determine 2: Digital music gross sales within the US, 2005-2023

Quelle: Recording Trade Affiliation of America (RIAA), U.S. Music Income Database, n.d., accessed: 2024-06-11.

In the meantime, income from music streaming has exploded. In 2015, paid subscriptions not solely surpassed $1 billion for the primary time, but additionally generated virtually as a lot income as obtain gross sales. When SoundExchange royalties for non-interactive streaming providers and satellite tv for pc radios are added, music streaming within the US has already generated considerably extra income than the obtain enterprise. Since 2015, the on-demand streaming phase has grown by a median of US $1 billion per yr and, at US $10.2 billion in 2023, was by far crucial income driver for the US recorded music trade, adopted by income from vinyl gross sales (US $1.4 billion) and SoundExchange distributions at round US $1 billion. CD gross sales (US $537 million) and obtain gross sales (US $396 million) have been far behind. A comparability of 2010, 2015 and 2023 reveals how dramatically the digital music market has modified.

Determine 3: The digital market within the US, 2010, 2015 and 2023

Supply: Recording Trade Affiliation of America (RIAA), U.S. Music Income Database, n.d., accessed: 2024-06-11.

Whereas obtain revenues (albums and singles) collectively had a market share of virtually 70 per cent in 2010, this had shrunk to round 31 per cent 5 years later and to only 2.7 per cent an extra seven years later. Revenues from ad-supported and paid streaming, however, rose from 6.7 per cent in 2010 to just about 53 per cent in 2015 and greater than 90 per cent in 2023. Solely SoundExchange revenues nonetheless have some relevance in 2023, with a share of 6.8 per cent. Nevertheless, they’re much more vital at 15.3 per cent in 2015 and seven.8 per cent in 2010.

Document gross sales within the US reached a file excessive of $17.1 billion in 2023, properly above the historic excessive of $14.6 billion in 1999. Nevertheless, when inflation is taken into account, the US file trade’s inflation-adjusted income in 1999 was considerably greater at $26.7 billion.  Nonetheless, music streaming has been accountable for the growth within the US recorded music market for the reason that mid-2010s.[7]

In fact, this growth was not confined to the US, but additionally affected all different markets for which the IFPI recurrently collects gross sales figures. Nevertheless, market dynamics diversified from nation to nation. The 2 charts beneath present how shortly the music streaming financial system took maintain in virtually each nation between 2011 and 2019. For every nation, the share of digital gross sales within the complete market and the share of streaming revenues within the digital market phase have been recorded. This reveals wherein nations the music streaming financial system has established itself extra shortly than in others. In 2011, most nations have been nonetheless dominated by bodily gross sales, because the digital share of complete gross sales was lower than 50 per cent. Which means that CDs and vinyl information accounted for greater than half of all gross sales within the recorded music market, together with many European nations corresponding to Germany, the UK and France, which have been the third to fifth largest recorded music markets on the earth in 2011. Nevertheless, the streaming share of the digital market in France was already at 34 per cent, though virtually 80 per cent of complete gross sales have been nonetheless generated by CDs. That is most likely because of the streaming service Deezer, which launched in France in 2007.

The presence of Spotify as an area streaming service additionally explains Sweden’s main place in music streaming in 2011, with streaming revenues already accounting for over 82 per cent of the digital market, though the digitisation charge of slightly below 50 per cent was not the best on the earth. The scenario was related in Norway, the place WiMP had been out there since 2010 and, alongside Spotify, helped streaming revenues account for round 63 per cent of the digital market in 2011, though virtually half of all revenues have been nonetheless generated by CD gross sales. Though the world’s largest music market, the US, went digital in 2011 with a share of virtually 58 per cent because of iTunes, streaming nonetheless performed a minor position within the digital phase at 18 cent. China stood out in 2011 with essentially the most developed digital market at 73 per cent, excluding the excessive proportion of unlawful gross sales. And virtually 45 per cent of digital revenues have been from streaming. Lastly, there’s an fascinating group of nations whose markets have been nonetheless dominated by bodily gross sales, however the place streaming accounted for 60 to 70 per cent of digital gross sales. These embrace Spain and Brazil, two comparatively giant music markets, in addition to small nations corresponding to Finland, Singapore and Taiwan.

Determine 4: The worldwide music streaming markets 2011

Supply: After IFPI Recording Trade in Numbers 2011.

Determine 5: The worldwide music streaming markets 2019

Supply: After IFPI World Music Report 2019.

Eight years later, in 2019, the scenario was utterly completely different. Practically 80 per cent of all nations had a streaming share of the digital market above 80 per cent, with markets differing solely within the diploma of digitisation. Some markets, corresponding to France, Germany, Austria and South Korea, nonetheless had a major share of recorded music gross sales, whereas within the Scandinavian nations and plenty of Asian and South American nations there have been nearly no CDs bought, with vinyl being the closest factor.

A particular case is Brazil, which has quickly reworked itself from a recorded music market to a streaming market. Whereas the share of bodily gross sales in Brazil was nonetheless properly over 80 per cent in 2011, it had shrunk to lower than 1 per cent eight years later. That is primarily because of streaming gross sales, which already dominated the digital phase in 2011 with a share of slightly below 71 per cent. In 2019, 99 per cent of digital gross sales got here from music streaming.

Nevertheless, there are additionally nations the place the streaming financial system isn’t as dominant, corresponding to Japan, the place music streaming accounted for less than 28.6 per cent of complete gross sales in 2021. With a whopping 58.4 per cent share, Japan was the world’s largest bodily music market in 2021, with $1.8 billion price of CDs and vinyl bought.[8]

South Korea can also be a particular case, having moved quickly in direction of a streaming financial system till 2015, however with a really erratic evolution thereafter. On account of a pointy enhance in bodily gross sales, largely pushed by the superfan phenomenon in Okay-pop, the digital market share fell once more from 2016 to 2018, solely to rise once more in 2019, with downloads hovering in that yr. A yr later, nevertheless, bodily gross sales rose once more, however downloads have been massively pushed again by streaming, catapulting South Korea into the streaming financial system from one yr to the following. By 2021, CD and vinyl gross sales as a proportion of complete gross sales have been falling once more in favour of rising streaming revenues, however the bodily market was nonetheless comparatively giant.

Nevertheless, essentially the most digitised music market is the Individuals’s Republic of China, which already had a big digital market phase in 2011, initially dominated by music obtain revenues. The share of music streaming revenues within the complete market rose sharply till 2014, earlier than one other obtain growth in 2015. After that, nevertheless, China shortly moved into the streaming financial system and by 2019 was virtually solely recording streaming revenues.

Determine 6: Music streaming markets in Brazil, China, South Korea, United Kingdom and US, 2011 to 2021

Supply: Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2022, World Music Report 2021, London: IFPI.

The event of the streaming financial system within the US and the UK has been comparatively secure, with the UK’s share of the bodily music market at all times bigger than that of the US. Nevertheless, in 2020 and 2021, there was additionally a development in direction of extra bodily gross sales in each nations, which meant that the digital share of the overall market fell barely. Total, nevertheless, it may be stated that regardless of completely different paths, virtually all main markets, except Japan, have arrived within the streaming financial system and have been capable of overcome the recession within the recorded music trade. Nevertheless, the foundations for this fast course of, with streaming as virtually the one income, have been laid earlier than 2010, in 2008 to be exact, when music streaming appeared economically irrelevant and Spotify, the eventual undisputed market chief, had began its operations in Sweden and several other different nations. This would be the topic of the second a part of the collection.


Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2004a, IFPI On-line Music Report, London: IFPI.

Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2004b, IFPI The Recording Trade World Gross sales 2003, London: IFPI.

Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2012, IFPI Recording Trade in Numbers 2011, London: IFPI.

Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2020a, IFPI Recording Trade in Numbers 2019, London: IFPI.

Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2020b, IFPI World Music Report 2019, London: IFPI.

Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2022, IFPI World Music Report 2021, London: IFPI.

Wlömert Nils & Dominik Papies, 2015, “On-demand streaming providers and music trade revenues – Insights from Spotify’s market entry”, Worldwide Journal of Analysis in Advertising and marketing, vol. 33(2), pp 314-327.


[1] Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2004a, IFPI On-line Music Report, London: IFPI.

[2] Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2004b, IFPI The Recording Trade World Gross sales 2003, London: IFPI.

[3] Ibid., p 3.

[4] US figures might be researched from 1973 to the current within the RIAA’s implausible interactive U.S. Income Music Database. Along with the nominal values, you may as well see the inflation-adjusted values: Recording Trade Affiliation of America (RIAA), U.S. Music Income Database, n.d., accessed: 2024-06-11.

[5] The calculations are primarily based on the knowledge offered by the Worldwide Federation of the Recording Trade (IFPI) in its annual studies for 2005 and 2009.

[6] A examine investigating the cannibalisation impact of music streaming on obtain gross sales was revealed by Wlömert and Papies in 2015: “On-demand streaming providers and music trade revenues – Insights from Spotify’s market entry”, Worldwide Journal of Analysis in Advertising and marketing, vol. 33(2), pp 314-327.

[7] Recording Trade Affiliation of America (RIAA), U.S. Music Income Database, n.d., accessed: 2024-06-11.

[8] Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Trade (IFPI), 2022, World Music Report 2021, London: IFPI, p 161.

Documentary Special Information Years of Abuse by the CEO of Sony Australia

Documentary Special Information Years of Abuse by the CEO of Sony Australia

According to a recent report from the American Broadcasting Corporation, Sony Music Entertainment’s top executives were informed of former CEO Denis Handlin’s aggressive actions over the course of 20 years.

The video from the radio company’s analytical program Four Corners is only the most recent report to detail years of alleged abuse Sony employees have experienced while working for Handlin, which is in line with earlier writing from outlets like The Guardian and Sydney Morning Herald. Handlin was fired in June, month after Sony opened an exploration into Australia’s work culture. Following the inspection, four additional Sony directors were also given leave of absence.

In the lead up to the documentary, Four Corners spoke with more than 100 current and former Sony Australia employees, including several former executive managers who left the company because of Handlin’s reported behavior.

Before his resignation, Handlin was widely regarded as the most powerful professional in the American music business, known for his ability to promote information. In the workplace, but, he fostered a culture of fear, as many reports show, where abuse, intimate misconduct and discrimination were frequent. In one instance, the software discovered a picture of Handlin rapping about the company’s competitiveness while dressed as Hitler.

Additionally, Four Corners found seven instances where pregnant women were fired and given money settlements over a six-year time prior to 2013. Matthew McQuade, a former Sony administrator, reported to Four Corners of an instance in which Handlin made intimate remarks about a new sexual employee. In the late 1970s, Cathie Hannan, a workaholic for Handlin, claimed that Handlin demanded that she step down after refusing to display her chests as part of a music development.

In addition, the new report also states that Sony Music’s business group in the United States in the 1990s received numerous complaints about Handlin from Sony Australia, which the Guardian initially reported in June. Greg Lockhart, Sony Australia’s brain of people resources at the time, worked closely with Handlin and for centuries and played a role in cleaning up following Handlin’s reported crimes. He claimed to Four Corners that he had reported Handlin numerous times throughout the 1990s, but the business did n’t take any action until 1998. By then, Lockhart, along with former Sony Australia banking mind Alan Terrey and two other professionals, were asked to submit a review to Sony corporate, detailing work issues such as Handlin being “abusive daily”, along with his “frequent jealous rages of screaming and bullying” and his ability to” treat women as equals”.

Handlin was immediately suspended, and Sony flew 10 American professionals to its New York commercial company for interviews as part of the company’s internal research. But three months later, Sony reinstated Handlin, and his power went untouched for another 23 years. According to the report, nine of the ten executives interviewed for the company are planning to leave over the coming years.

Since the initial investigation in the Nineties, the company has undergone numerous top executive shifts, and Sony claims that its current leadership has n’t received any complaints about the situation until this year. We take all allegations of bullying, harassment, and other inappropriate behavior seriously and conduct an extensive investigation,” Sony Music Entertainment said in a statement. ” Only recently did claims surface and we are examining them expeditiously. Given that the parties involved at the time are no longer employed by the company, we are unable to comment further on allegations involving events that occurred more than 20 years ago. Sony Music has been reviewing these issues as far as these have been raised.

Beneath the Glass Ceiling, a nonprofit organization, is at the center of the reporting that is influencing Australia’s ongoing reckoning. The organization has provided anonymity to victims of the Australian music industry’s sexual harassment and abusive workplace environments for more than a year, and it has also assisted in connecting those interested with journalists, legal counsel, support groups, and other sources. The group is growing quickly with nearly 15, 000 instagram followers, and the page is expanding its scope. The page announced last week that it was expanding internationally and is asking for anyone from the world music industry to begin sharing their stories.

While the Australian music industry has conducted ongoing investigations into workplace abuse and sexual misconduct, the industry has largely avoided the scrutiny that the wider entertainment sector has experienced in relation to long-standing issues of workplace abuse and sexual misconduct. However, advocates are trying to change that. In the U.S., Dorothy Carvello, who wrote in her book Anything For a Hit about her own experience of sexual harassment while serving as Atlantic’s first female A&amp, R representative, told Billboard last week that she wants to become an activist shareholder and demand accountability from major music companies. She hopes that a proposal to terminate any non-disclosure agreements the companies may have with current or former employees or clients as an activist shareholder with stakes in UMG, Sony, and WMG.